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الموضوع: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

  1. #1
    Junior Engineer الصورة الرمزية علاء كامل خلف
    تاريخ التسجيل
    May 2007
    الدولة
    العراق
    المشاركات
    29

    مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    السلام عليكم
    نحيي هذا التوجه العلمي ونشكر العاملين عليه نرفق اليكم الملف ادناه مع التقدير



    KEMA High-Power and
    High-Voltage Laboratories.
    High & Medium Voltage Testing & Certification.
    KEMA is located in Arnhem only an hour from Amsterdam, and there are good connections by train and car to most major European cities.
    Being a provincial capital city, Arnhem offers all kinds of amenities and tourist attractions such as:
    • Good hotel facilities
    • Bars and restaurants with chefs
    from all over the world
    • A zoo, specialized in jungle animals
    and desert and ocean inhabitants
    • An open air museum
    • A museum of modern art
    • The Kröller Müller museum with
    impressionists such as Van Gogh
    • A shopping center


    How to get to KEMA

    *******s.
    Reassurance of independent testing page 4
    History of the Laboratories page 6
    KEMA Certificates and Reports page 8
    An overview of KEMA High-Power Laboratory page 10
    An overview of KEMA High-Voltage Laboratory page 12
    Testing and Engineering Capabilities, USA page 14
    Circuit-breakers page 16
    Transformers page 18
    Power Cables page 20
    Insulators page 22
    Facilities at KEMA page 24
    Experience you can trust page 26
    4




    Reassurance of
    independent testing.

    All over the world decision makers at power companies as well as network owners are doing their utmost to keep risks at a bare minimum while at the same time reducing network management
    costs. An important and ******ive tool in this process is testing. If an independent third party judges the quality of a plan, system, or component, then that gives assurance. Both the controller of the
    infrastructure and the customers know that an independent party has conducted tests to ascertain whether or not the reliability that has been promised can be realized. KEMA has been the independent partner of utilities and components manufacturers for seventy-five years now. KEMA has the full confidence of its customers in every

    KEMA Type Test Certificate: Key to your Market

    Manufacturers worldwide certify for utilities worldwide.
    It is impossible to imagine modern society without electricity. Process
    industries, hospitals, and entire cities are primarily dependent on just one interconnected infrastructure: the electricity network. What would happen if one vital component in this network fails is a nightmare that haunts network operators not to mention numerous individuals in their homes and offices. If there is a power outage, the result is
    inconvenience, stress, danger, and economic loss.

    KEMA testing services

    To assist manufacturers: Pre-testing to develop prototypes,
    certification
    To assist network operators: Acceptance tests on final products,
    review of test specifications quality
    surveillance, training
    Test ******s: Circuit-breakers, switchgear, power transformers fuses, cable and accessories, instrument transformers
    and all other transmission and distribution components




    corner of the globe. The most diverse components for the electricity network are tested in the KEMA High-Power & High-Voltage Laboratories. The certificates and affiliated test reports are globally
    accepted and indicate that the quality of the components has been ******ively tested. This is a reassuring thought in a sector where the quality of the service has a direct impact on millions of people.
    Every year more than 150 companies in over 30 countries regard a KEMA certificate or a KEMA report as a valuable marketing tool for selling their products. And it assures buyers that the purchased equipment complies with their expectations. We combine seventy-five years of experience with a continuous interest in meeting today’s demands - while anticipating tomorrow’s requirements. Because
    your safety proves our quality!

    History of the Laboratories.

    High-Power Laboratory
    The roots of the laboratories go back to 1937 when the first KEMA Laboratory was commissioned to perform short-circuit tests for the founders of KEMA: the joint electricity supply companies in the Netherlands. Not long after the first controlled short-circuit tests were performed, the circuit-breaker manufacturers requested that KEMA be authorized to act on behalf of the utilities and conduct research and development tests without the presence of the utility company
    representatives. This initiated the process of development that led to the independent status that characterizes KEMA today, and to
    the expansion of KEMA’s 500 MVA station to 1000 MVA after World War II. To meet increasing demands, a second laboratory was commissioned in 1958. Two short-circuit generators made it possible to perform three-phase tests at power levels up to 3000 MVA. The ever-increasing power of the Dutch grid necessitated the creation
    of a new laboratory. Commissioned in 1973, this station is now the world’s most powerful laboratory, utilizing short-circuit generators with a power level up to 10000 MVA at 60 Hz. A highly sophisticated and reliable installation for the synthetic testing of (ultra) highvoltage
    circuit-breakers is available as well. This installation is designed for single-phase and three-phase synthetic tests.


    Recently KEMA added a medium-voltage test station with state-of-the-art controls and instrumentation to more fully utilize the existing capacity and provide increased flexibility for both medium- and
    high-voltage testing programs.


    High-Voltage Laboratory

    The High-Voltage Laboratory was constructed earlier than the High-Power Laboratory. The laboratory was used for the Dutch utilities
    during the integration of the Dutch highvoltage networks, and is equipped with all the required voltage sources for power frequency
    tests, lightning, and switching voltage impulse tests. Although still located in it’s original building, the testing equipment, voltage
    sources, and measuring systems have been upgraded to meet today’s standards.

    KEMA-Powertest, Inc.

    In 1990, KEMA acquired Powertest, Inc. , which with its 3250 MVA of short-circuit power is the largest High-Power Laboratory in the United States. Located in Chalfont, Pennsylvania (near Philadelphia), this
    laboratory was designed and built in the early 1970’s. The purchase of the laboratory by KEMA made it independent of any manufacturer and allowed it to operate as a commercial third-party laboratory. The
    laboratory recently expanded the shortcircuit and load-switching testing capabilities to voltages up to 72 kV.

    KEMA Certificates and Reports.
    Certification tests

    Tests performed at KEMA on behalf of manufacturers that want KEMA to test their equipment strictly in accordance with a recognized standard (IEC, ANSI, CENELEC or any national standard). After
    the successful conclusion of the tests, KEMA will issue a Type Test Certificate for the tested sample stating that the ratings assigned by the manufacturer have been endorsed.



    Acceptance tests

    Tests carried out as part of a purchase agreement to verify that the equipment meets the purchaser’s specifications. These tests can be conducted in the KEMA laboratories or, partly, witnessed by KEMA
    inspectors at the manufacturer’s plant.


    Research & Development tests

    Tests carried out for a manufacturer, utility, or research organization as part of a research or development project.

    On-site tests

    Mobile testing equipment is available to verify the fitness for use of new equipment after installation, or before and after maintenance
    of older equipment.

    Calibration
    Calibration of high-voltage measuring systems.
    All types of equipment for transmission and distribution systems can be tested on its performance during short circuits and under other conditions. KEMA laboratory quality systems have been officially accredited according to the ISO/IEC 17025. Moreover, KEMA is
    a founding member of the Short-circuit Testing Liaison (STL), the global forum for international collaboration amongtesting organizations. In principle, all kinds of type tests can be carried out at
    KEMA. The tests can be divided into the following categories according to their ******ives:


    Certificate

    A Certificate contains a record of a series of type tests carried out strictly in accordance with a recognized standard. The equipment tested has fulfilled the requirements of this standard and the
    relevant ratings assigned by the manufacturer are endorsed by KEMA. The Certificate is applicable only to the equipment tested. KEMA is responsible for the validity and the *******s of the Certificate. The responsibility for conformity of any apparatus having the same designation as the one tested rests with the manufacturer. The Certificate contains the essential drawings and a de******ion of the equipment tested.

    Report of Performance

    A Report of Performance contains a record of one or more tests, which have been carried out according to the customer’s instructions. These tests are not necessarily in accordance with a recognized
    standard. The test results do not necessarily verify ratings of the test ******.

    Certificates or Reports.
    78
    9
    Test station 4 Test station 5
    1 4 5
    Special Features:

    Fast master breakers: Extremely fast master breakers with an opening time of 6 ms provide half-cycle (one loop) protection
    of test ******s. Auxiliary circuit-breakers: Single pole and three-phase SF6 circuit-breakers up to 500 kV for synthetic tests and vacuum
    circuit-breakers up to 36 kV. Short-line fault testing: Mobile artificial
    lines without time delay for direct SLF testing at currents up to 100 kA, which are suitable for O-0.3s-CO duties and also for synthetic
    testing of circuit-breakers up to 550 kV. Transformer secondary fault and shunt reactor switching: Large reactors for the control of the transient recovery voltage with a very high rate of rise at reduced currents.

    Short-circuit generators

    Driven by electric motor
    • 16.6-50-60 Hz
    • 15 kV-85 kA
    Short circuit power
    in test cell at 60 Hz
    • 10000 MVA three-phase
    • 5800 MVA single phase

    HPL Circuit-Breakers
    Master breakers
    • 15 kV-165 kArms
    • Opening time 6 ms
    Make switches
    • 15 kV-250 kApeak
    • Closing time repeatability <5°
    An overview of KEMA
    High-Power laboratory.

    Switchyard Jetty to test transformers aboard barge
    The circuit
    Test station 6 Installation for synthetic tests
    Injection methods
    • Current injection
    • Voltage injection
    • Single-phase tests
    • Three-phase tests
    • 6-phase reignition

    Open air test site
    7 9
    HPL Transformers
    6 transformers 2x14/2x36 kV:
    • Up to 245 kV three-phase
    • Up to 430 kV single-phase
    Special equipment
    • Make gap for HV-making tests
    • Artificial line for SLF
    Data Acquisition System
    • 44 channels, up to 1 Mb
    • 12 bit resolution
    • Automatic data calculation and evaluation
    • 0.1 µs, 1 µs, 10 µs sample rate
    • All data saved on CD for further application



    An overview of KEMA High-Voltage Laboratory.
    Main building
    Power frequency voltages up to 1000 kV, Impulse voltages up to 2600 kV /130 kJ, Direct voltages up to 1000 kV,Temperature-rise tests up to 60 kA,Tensile bank up to 400 kN, Standard
    voltage and current transformers.

    Test bay
    The main laboratory with test bays for the testing of various components in parallel. The main test bay can hold complete gas-insulated systems, large generator bus-bar systems with easy access to all voltage sources, and artificial rain equipment.

    Special facilities

    Special facilities are available to determine the stability of composite
    insulators with respect to erosion due to severe weather conditions.

    Faraday cage
    Faraday cage with attenuation of 100 dB for special low noise
    voltage and partial discharge measurements with a sensitivity
    below 0,5 pC. This bay can also be used for temperature-rise tests
    at elevated ambient temperature up to 55 degrees Celsius.

    Climatic room

    Climatic test facility for special tests for circuit-breakers, enclosed
    switchgear, and dry-type transformers. Temperature and humidity
    can be controlled independently.

    Dielectric test area Test cells
    Testing and Engineering
    capabilities, USA.
    Generator hall
    KEMA-Powertest, inc,
    Chalfont, PA, USA
    • High-voltage short-circuit testing and load switching up to 3250 MVA and 72 kV at 50 Hz and 60 Hz frequencies. Testing at lower frequencies also available
    • Low-voltage short-circuit testing
    and load-switching capabilities up to 300 kA at 60 Hz and below, and
    240 kAdc at voltages up to 1600 V • Dielectric testing up to 1000 kV
    impulse and 600 kV power frequency
    • Temperature-rise tests up to 30 kAac and 10 kAdc

    Internal arcing test Synthetic test area Control room
    Circuit-breakers.

    All components in the high-voltage network must serve to transmit electricity along the connections:
    • Switchgear to energize and de-energize the overhead lines and underground circuits
    • Transformers to reach the most economical voltage level for transmission
    • Capacitor banks and shunt reactors to control the voltage
    • Control centers and telecommunication systems to operate the grid
    • Protection systems to prevent the collapse of the network’s functionality in the event of equipment failure One of the most important elements in the protection system to assure a functional
    and reliable network is the circuit-breaker. The circuit-breaker will energize and de-energize a section of the high-voltage
    network in normal applications. The current may be lagging or leading, but will normally not exceed the rated nominal current of the system. To purely switch these currents, the circuit-breaker would
    not have to be as complicated as it is. However, in case of a short circuit somewhere in the network, the circuit-breaker is the only means of protecting the network. Therefore, it must fulfill more difficult
    requirements. If a short circuit is not interrupted immediately,
    the backup protection systems will trip a larger part of the transmission grid, HV gas-insulated switchgear HV circuit-breakers ****l enclosed switchgear MV circuit-breakers Generator circuit-breakers Auto reclosers Ring-main units Load switches Switch-fuse combinations Current-limiting fuses Expulsion fuses, cutouts
    Disconnectors Earthing switches

    A network for the transmission of electric energy basically consists of
    (long-distance) connections. These connections are normally comprised of overhead lines, but underground cables are also used in densely populated areas and in special cases.

    leading to the outage of more overhead lines, busbars and substations, and consequently the interruption of the power supply for a larger area. The power supply and voltage level for the remaining part of the grid may be endangered.
    During a short circuit, the synchronizing power of the network is (partially) lost.
    Longer duration of a short circuit may result in dynamic stability problems for
    the generating plants. Therefore, fast elimination of the fault is necessary.
    Rapid, selective, and reliable clearing of the short-circuit currents is required. In
    this con****, KEMA’s involvement is to reassure, as an independent and impartial
    testing authority, the circuit-breakers’ performance and reliability.

    Circuit-breaker performance measurement and analysis system

    During short-circuit tests at KEMA detailed information can be obtained about
    current and voltage in the period around current zero, in which the decision by the
    circuit breaker “to interrupt or not to interrupt” is made. Through evaluation of the
    information - arc current and arc voltage of high resolution - important conclusions
    can be drawn about the interruption performance of the breaker. Possible direct applications of the measurements are:
    • Mapping of the breaker’s degradation during a test series
    • Electrical endurance assessment
    • Comparing different designs of breakers for their probability of passing a certification test Based on a large number of tests performed at KEMA, an arc model has been derived by which arccircuit interaction analyses are
    made that result in, for example:
    • Enlarging the probability of passing a certification test
    • Design tool, e.g. for evaluation of the effect of parallel capacitors (rating, location)
    • Fine-tuning of test circuits
    • Estimation of the effect of interrupting chambers in series on interruption performance Power frequency voltage withstand RIV and Corona
    Noise level Partial discharge measurement Lightning impulse Switching impulse
    Impulse current Temperature-rise Mechanical endurance Short-time current withstand Short-circuit making and breaking Making capacity Breaking capacity
    Short-line fault Out-of-phase Mainly active load Cable charging Line charging
    Capacitor bank charging Back-to-back switching Low inductive current
    Shunt reactor High-voltage motor Magnetizing current Arcing Internal fault
    Power arc Pressure relief Environmental Pollution Humidity Severe ice conditions

    Transformers.

    Transformers, like series reactors, have the quality to limit the short-circuit currents to values predominantly determined by the transformer’s impedance. In this way, the design of a power transformer with respect to the short-circuit current withstand
    capability is directed towards the limitation of the current values as such as
    well as towards the control of the forces and stresses exerted by the same short
    circuit currents inside of the transformer. With an increase of the short-circuit
    power throughout the years, the most severe short- circuit currents will appear
    when the transformer has aged. These short-circuit currents must be withstood
    without impairing the transformer. Also, the short-circuit withstand capability is
    defined as the ability to withstand several full asymmetrical short-circuit currents in
    each phase and in each representative tap position without impairing the transformer’s suitability for normal service conditions. Experience with short-circuits in service as well as experience with short-circuit tests in high-power laboratories force users and manufacturers to pay serious attention to the short-circuit withstand characteristics of power transformers. Real tests are a prerequisite for manufacturers in order to build up know-how.

    علاء كامل خلف الاسدي
    العراق-بابل
    مديرية توزيع كهرباء الفرات الاوسط





























  2. #2
    V.I.P Member الصورة الرمزية Abdul chanbour
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    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    [mark=FFFF00]السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    شكرا جزيلاً على مجهودك.
    وفقكم الله و جعل كل ذلك في ميزان حسناتك[/mark]

  3. #3
    Consultant SCADA & AMI الصورة الرمزية موسى سعيد أبو خطوه
    تاريخ التسجيل
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    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    شكراً لك اخي الكريــــــــــــــــم
    الملفات المرفقة الملفات المرفقة
    • نوع الملف: pdf KEMA.pdf‏ (63.2 كيلوبايت, 312 مشاهدات)

  4. #4
    V.I.P Member الصورة الرمزية حسنى لبيب
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    شكرا اخى الكريم

  5. #5
    عضو فى رابطة مهندسى الكهرباء العرب الصورة الرمزية Ahmed Abd Elfattah
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    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    جزاك الله خيرا

  6. #6
    محاضر دورة إدارة المشروعات الصورة الرمزية ايهاب زكريا
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    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته
    جزاك الله كل خير أخى الكريم

    لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله

  7. #7
    مشرف قسم الكابلات الأرضية الصورة الرمزية م. كامل بدرخان
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    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    م/علاء
    لقد جعلتنا نسبح في نهر( كيما )ولكن لن ننسى أبدا النيل ودجلة والفرات, وجزاكم الله خيرا كثيرا.

  8. #8
    عضو فى رابطة مهندسى الكهرباء العرب الصورة الرمزية mostafa ahmed
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    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    السلام عليكم ورحمه الله وبركاته
    بارك الله فيك على هذا الشرح
    اسال الله ان يحرر العراق من ايدى الظلمه الغاشمين
    امين يارب العالمين
    السلام عليكم
    م/ مصطفى أحمد محمد موسى
    مدرس مساعد بكلية الهندسة
    جامعة أسوان
    اسوان - مصر

  9. #9
    elamir
    Guest

    رد: مختبرات كيما KEMA لمواد الشبكة

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    اللهم اجعلة فى ميزان حسناتك يوم القيامة

  10. #10
    Junior Engineer الصورة الرمزية م/ اكرامي عبد القوي
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    شكراخي ال م/ علاء وكل من مساهم في هذا الموضوع لكم مني كل الشكر
    [B]
    قال رسول الله صلي الله وعلية وسلم
    احب الكلام الي الله اربع :
    "سبحان الله ، والحمد لله ، ولا إله ألا الله ، والله اكبر
    لا يضرك بأيهن بدأت "
    مسلم 1685/3
    B]

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