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الموضوع: CLASSIFICATIONS OF SUB STATIONS

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    Consultant Engineer الصورة الرمزية أسامة حسن البلخي
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    Sep 2014
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    CLASSIFICATIONS OF SUB STATIONS

    ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION
    INTRODUCTION

    An electrical Network comprises of the following systems:
    Ø Generating Stations
    Ø Transmission Systems
    Ø Receiving Stations
    Ø Distribution Systems
    Ø Load Points

    In all these systems, the power flow of electrical energy takes place through Electrical Substations. An Electrical Substation is an assemblage of electrical components including busbars, switchgear, power transformers, auxiliaries, etc. Basically an electrical substation consists of a number of incoming circuits and outgoing circuits connected to common busbar system. Busbars are conducting bars to which a number of incoming or outgoing circuits are connected. Each circuit has certain electrical components such as circuit-breakers, isolators, earthing switches, current transformers, voltage transformers, etc. These components are connected in a definite sequence such that a circuit can be switched off/on during normal operation by manual/remote command and also automatically during abnormal conditions such as short-circuits. A substation receives electrical power from generating station via incoming transmission lines and delivers electrical power via the outgoing transmission lines. Substations are integral parts of a power system and form important links between the generating stations, transmission and distribution systems and the load points.
    Functions of a sub-station:

    An electricity supply undertaking generally aims at the following:

    Ø Supply of required electrical power to all the consumers continuously at all times.
    Ø Maximum possible coverage of the supply network over the given geographical area.
    Ø Maximum security of supply.
    Ø Shortest possible fault duration.
    Ø Optimum efficiency of plants and the network.
    Ø Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits.
    Ø Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits.
    Ø Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost.
    Ø As a result of these ******ives, there are various tasks which are closely associated with the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of the electrical energy. These tasks are performed by various, manual, semi-automatic and fully automatic devices located in generating stations and substations.

    The tasks associated with a major substation in the transmission system include the following:
    Ø Controlling the exchange of energy
    Ø Protection of transmission system
    Ø Ensuring steady state and transient stability
    Ø Load shedding and prevention of loss of synchronism.
    Ø Maintaining the system frequency within targeted limits
    Ø Voltage control, reducing the reactive power flow by compensation of reactive power, tap-changing.
    Ø Securing the supply by providing adequate line capacity and facility for changing the transmission paths.
    Ø Data transmission via power line carrier for the purpose of network monitoring, control and protection.
    Ø Determining the energy transfer through transmission lines and tie-lines.
    Ø Fault analysis and pin-pointing the cause and subsequent improvements.
    Ø Securing supply by feeding the network at various points.

    All these tasks are performed by the team work of load-control centre and control rooms of substations. The substations perform several important tasks and are integral part of the power system.
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    لاإله إلا الله محمد رسول الله

  2. #2
    مشرف قسم المحولات الصورة الرمزية رباح فارس
    تاريخ التسجيل
    Oct 2007
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    رد: CLASSIFICATIONS OF SUB STATIONS

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  3. #3
    Consultant Engineer الصورة الرمزية أسامة حسن البلخي
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    Sep 2014
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    رد: CLASSIFICATIONS OF SUB STATIONS

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    لاإله إلا الله محمد رسول الله

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