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الموضوع: how to write a scientific research

  1. #1
    مشرف سابق بقسم اللغة الإنجليزية و الترجمة الصورة الرمزية سعود الحربي
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    how to write a scientific research

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

    I will explain now the way to write a scientific research in english

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    **The sections of a research paper

    Different researches may use different section headings and subheadings. But most or all of the following usually occur:

    Title*

    Abstract*

    Introduction*

    Methods*

    Results*

    Discussion*

    Acknowledgements*

    References*

    Tables*

    Figure Legends*

    Figures*

    Note that the Methods section usually contains subsections,most frequently (although there is variation depending onthe nature of the research):

    Subjects*
    Apparatus*
    Stimuli*
    Procedures*

    It is extremely important that everything goes in the correctplace. Thus, Apparatus (equipment, tests, lab or room etc)should not refer to Procedures (instructions, flash duration,experimental design, time of day, etc) and vice-versa.

    Similarly, the Results section should contain just factualresult reporting (in the past tense) including statistical testsbut no discussion.

    Let’s now consider each of the sections in turn.Title:This should be as short as possible but should also give a clearindication of the paper’s *******Abstract:No longer than 100-200 words. Should factually describethe purpose, techniques, results and implications. No details ofmethods. It should grab attention and create a desire to read on. Writeit last, when you know what’s in the paper. Absolutely no jargon.Introduction:Places the study in the con**** of previous research buttells only what the reader needs to know to understand the presentwork.Either avoid jargon or explain it very clearly.Methods:The first paragraph of the Introduction is the hardest partof a paper to write. Methods is the easiest and can be started evenwhen the research is unfinished. So start there. Must be specificenough to permit replication. Where necessary, justify choices made(of variables, techniques etc).
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 6
    Results: The results - writing, statistics and graphs - should bepresented as simply as possible. Try to make figure legends selfcontained (see Discussion below) so that reference to the **** isunnecessary. Do not present irrelevant data to which the Discussionwill not refer. Past tense: “Regression analysis indicated …”Discussion:When most people read a paper, they read the Abstractfirst, then the Introduction, some graphs or tables and then theDiscussion. Therefore, the Discussion should begin by summarisingthe main findings. Then interpret the findings in relation to theIntroduction and finally draw conclusions. Keep the discussion to theresults, i.e. do not go beyond the data. Present tense: “One possibleexplanation is …..”Acknowledgments:Acknowledge the significant assistance ofthose who helped you plus any financial support (e.g. grant agency) orin-kind support.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 7 /References:
    Make sure that you use the style of referencing that thejournal requires. Software such as EndNote, Reference Manager orProCite makes this easy and ends typing References for ever. Ensureall cited items are listed and no listed references are uncited in the ****.Editors use References to choose referees - you can make use of this!Figure Legends:Make these as clear as possible, ensuring that thereare no aspects of the figure which are not explained either in thelegend or the figure itself.Tables:Use the style of table specified in the Instructions to authorsor used in papers in the journalFigures:Make these as uncluttered and as easy to read as possible.Always present error bars. It is really worth investing in softwarewhich gives you complete and quality control of graph design (e.g.Kaleidagraph)
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    Page 8
    Writing a Research Paper: Hints and Tips
    This is a list of hints and common flaws, in no particular order:
    •Always write a draft and leave a day or two before rereading to polish
    •Avoid clumsy phrasing and try to eliminate all unnecessary words•Give the draft to an experienced author and take heed of comments
    •Avoid unnecessary meaningless words - “basically”, “as such”
    •Don’t use plural (criteria, phenomena) when you mean singular(criterion, phenomenon)
    •Don’t use “less” (quantity) when you mean “fewer” (number).
    •Always do a spell check. Reviewers hate multiple spelling errors
    •When ready to send the paper, don’t. Wait a day and read it oncemore. You will almost certainly find errors you had missed. This ispersonal experience talking
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Page 9
    Writing a Research Paper: Hints and Tips:
    •Use active voice (“I/We estimated the midpoint”) rather than passive(“The midpoint was estimated”)
    •Avoid split infinitives (“..to manually invert”) by placing the adverbafter the verb (“..to invert manually”)
    •Aim for economy - replace “based upon the fact that” and “for thepurpose of” with “because” and “to”.
    •When you write a paper - just as when you give a talk - there are lotsof ways to turn your audience off. Being boring is one ….
    •… another is using endless footnotes, which breaks continuity. Avoid!
    •Whether a paper or talk, know, and be considerate of, your audience.
    •Don’t get hamstrung by statistics: the aim of statistics is to describeyour results succintly and clearly - in my view, nothing more
    •Use active voice (“I/We estimated the midpoint”) rather than passive(“The midpoint was estimated”)
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Writing a Research Paper: Hints and Tips

    •Rarely is a paper accepted without revision. When a paper is returnedfor revision, the referee reports always sound worse than they are onfirst reading. Make a list of exactly what you need to do, then do it.

    •When returning a revision, attach a letter specifying exactly whatyou’ve done to meet each referee’s criticisms. Where you haven’t donesomething requested justify not doing it. That is, address every point.

    •If one of three referees says more experiments are needed you mighttry to argue against that. But if all three say it, it is probably true.

    •In the end, if a paper is rejected outright, don’t react negatively. Usethe referee reports to improve the paper for submission to anotherjournal.


    والله ولي التوفيق وهذا نقلته لكم من كتاب مع المرفقات ويوجد ايضا 8 كتب لكيفية كتابة البحث العلمي

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  2. #2
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    دكتور مهندس الصورة الرمزية د/ عماد محمد
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    مشرف سابق لقسم هندسة الحماية الصورة الرمزية abdalsamad
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  6. #6
    مشرف سابق بقسم اللغة الإنجليزية و الترجمة الصورة الرمزية سعود الحربي
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