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الموضوع: مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب

  1. #1
    عضو مجلس إدارة المنتديات الصورة الرمزية شامية الزونه
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    مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب

    الأخوة الكرام أعضاء المنتدى جميعا
    و خاصة انت يا الزائر الكريم
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    هنا سوف نبدأ مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب
    مطلوب منك طرح سؤال فى مجال
    الألكترونيات و الأتصالات إذا كان لديك خبرة فى هذا المجال
    و تجاوب على هذا السؤال فقط لا غير بدون عمل اى أقتباس للمشاركة السابقة لك
    و يجعل الله عملك فى ميزان حسناتك يوم لا ينفع مال و لابنون
    تقبلوا تحياتى
    للمزيد من المعلومات العلمية فى مجال نظم القوى الكهربائية
    يمكنكم زيارة الموقع الرسمى للمنتديات
    بالضغط هـــنا


  2. #41
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    Arrow The mainboard components

    أخبرنى باختصار عن مكونات اللوحة الرئيسية فى الكمبيوتر The mainboard components


    The PC is built around the main, system or mother board (all meaning the same). This board is so essential for the PC,
    because it holds the CPU and all its connections. Let us see, what you can find on it ?
    1-ROM-chips with BIOS and other programs
    2-CMOS, storing system setup data
    3-The CPU
    3-L2-cache
    4-Chip sets with I/O controllers
    5-RAM (Random Access Memory) mounted in SIMM or DIMM chips
    6-Cards to connect with keyboard and mouse
    7-Serial and parallel ports
    8-Connectors to disk drives and EIDE drive (hard disk, CD-ROM etc.)
    9-Slots for expansion cards
    10-Jumpers to adjust voltage, system bus speed, clock, etc.
    11-Contacts to reset HD activity, speaker, etc.
    روابط هامة وجميلة


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  3. #42
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    Arrow ماذا يحدث باختصار عند تشغيل مفتاح الكمبيوتر ؟؟؟ The PC start-up process

    ماذا يحدث باختصار عند تشغيل مفتاح الكمبيوتر ؟؟؟
    The PC start-up process



    When you turn power on, several things happen in the PC:
    ?You hear the fan motor starting. There are one or more cooling fans in the PC. They produce a whirring sound.
    ?After a few seconds, **** starts to scroll on the screen.
    ?Now the PC tests and counts the RAM. You see a number on the screen. It increases in size.
    To understand the working of the PC, it is useful to study the PC start-up process. Those are events, which take place from
    power-on until the PC is ready to work. Remember, the PC can do nothing without receiving instructions. These instructions
    are commands, which are sent to the CPU. During start-up, the PC reads the commands in this sequence:
    ?First it receives commands from the ROM chips. Those chips are inherent in any computer. They contain the POST and
    BIOS instructions, which we will look at shortly.
    ?Next, the operating system is read from the hard disk (or from floppy or from CD-ROM OR from network or from flash rom in recent model or from drive A). This is called the boot proces
    s.
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  4. #43
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    Arrow Configuration POST CMOS

    اذن خبرنى عن بعض المصطلحات التى تساعدنى فى فهم الكمبيوتر مثل البوست والسى موس والكونفجيراشن ؟

    POST
    Power On Self Test is the first instruction executed during start-up. It checks the PC components and that everything works.
    You can recognize it during the RAM test, which occurs as soon as you turn power on.
    As users, we have only limited ability to manipulate the POST instructions. But certain system boards enable the user to order
    a quick system check. Some enable the user to disable the RAM test, thereby shortening the duration of the POST. The
    duration of the POST can vary considerably in different PC's. On the IBM PC 300 computer, it is very slow. But you can
    disrupt it by pressing [Esc].
    If POST detects errors in the system, it will write error messages on the screen. If the monitor is not ready, or if the error is in
    the video card, it will also sound a pattern of beeps (for example 3 short and one long) to identify the error to the user. If you
    want to know more of the beeps, you can find explanations on the Award, AMI and Phoenix web sites.
    POST also reads those user instructions, which are found in CMOS

    CMOS

    CMOS (Complimentary ****l Oxide Semiconductor) is a small amount of memory in a special RAM chip. Its memory is
    maintained with electric power from a small battery. Certain system data are stored in this chip. They must be read to make
    the PC operable. There may be 100 to 200 bytes of data regarding date, time, floppy and hard disk drives, and much more.
    CMOS data can be divided in two groups:
    ?Data, which POST can not find during the system test.
    ?Data, which contain user options.
    For example, POST cannot by itself find sufficient information about the floppy drive(s). Floppy drives are so "dumb," that
    POST cannot read whether they are floppy drives or not, nor what type. About the same goes for IDE hard disks, while EIDE
    hard disks are a little more "intelligent," However, POST still needs assistance to identify them 100% correctly.
    The same goes for RAM: POST can count how much RAM is in the PC. However, POST cannot detect whether it is FPM,
    EDO or SD RAM. Since the CPU and BIOS reads data from RAM chips differently, depending on the RAM type, that type
    must be identified.
    Configuration

    The PC must be configured, be supplied with this information. That is done in the factory or store, where it is assembled. This
    information is stored in CMOS, where they stay. CMOS data only need to be updated, when different or additional hardware
    components are installed. This could be a different type hard disk or floppy disks or an new RAM type, Often he user can do
    this.
    Other data in CMOS contain various user options. Those are data, which you can write to CMOS. For example, you can
    adjust date and time, which the PC then adjusts every second. You can also choose between different system parameters.
    Maybe you want a short system check instead of a long one. Or if you want the PC to try to boot from hard disk C before
    trying floppy disk A, or vice versa. These options can be written to CMOS.
    Many of the options are of no interest to the ordinary user. These are options, which regard controller chips on the system
    board, which can be configured in different ways. Ordinarily, there is no need to make such changes. The system board
    manufacturer has already selected the optimal configurations. They recommend in their manuals, that you do not change
    these default settings.
    We can conclude, that CMOS data are essential system data, which are vital for operation of the PC. Their special feature is that they are user adjustable. Adjustments to CMOS are made during start-up.,
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  5. #44
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
    تاريخ التسجيل
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    Arrow The primary suppliers of bios chepset

    هلا اخبرتنا بأهم انواع شرائح البيوس الموجودة فى الكمبيوتر


    Suppliers of system software
    All PC's have instructions in ROM chips on the system board. The ROM chips are supplied by specialty software
    manufacturers, who make BIOS chips. The primary suppliers are:
    ?Phoenix
    ?AMI (American Megatrends)
    ?Award
    You can read the name of your BIOS chip during start-up. You can also see the chip on the system board
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  6. #45
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
    تاريخ التسجيل
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    Arrow رد: مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب

    أردت التوضيح الحقيقة الهامة أن الكثير يغفل على أن البرنامج الموجود فى البيوس هو جزء من نظام التشغيل
    أشرح لنا ما هو برنامج البيوس وهل يمكن تحديثه

    The BIOS programs
    During start-up. the BIOS programs are read from a ROM chip. BIOS is abbreviation of Basic Input Output System and those
    are programs, which are linked to specific hardware systems. For example, there is a BIOS routine, which identifies how the
    PC reads input from the keyboard.
    BIOS is a typical link in the IBM compatible PC design. The BIOS programs control hardware, the user (programmer) controls
    hardware via a call to BIOS.
    BIOS typically occupy 1 MB, and the programs are saved ROM chips on the system board.
    During start-up, BIOS is read from ROM chips. That information is supplemented with the system data saved in CMOS.
    Furthermore, there is BIOS code on the expansion cards. The expansion cards are external hardware, as interpreted by the
    system board, and the BIOS code, which is linked to the expansion card, must be included in the configuration. Therefore,
    this expansion card ROM is read during start-up, and the program code is woven together with other BIOS data. It is all
    written into RAM, where it is ready for the operating system,

    Otherwise, the BIOS routines are not always in use. They can be regarded as basic program layers in the PC. Many
    programs routinely bypass BIOS. In that case, they "write direct to hardware", as we say. Windows contains program files,
    which can be written directly to all kinds of hardware - bypassing BIOS routines. One example is the COM ports. If you use
    the BIOS routines connected with them, you can transmit only at max. 9600 baud on the modem. That is insufficient.
    Therefore, Windows will assume control over the COM port.
    BIOS-update
    BIOS programs can be updated. The modern system board has the BIOS instructions in flash-ROM, which can be updated.
    You can get new BIOS-software from your supplier or on the Internet, which can be read onto the system board. The loading
    is a special process, where you might need to change a jumper switch on the system board. Usually, you do not need to do
    this, but it is a nice available option.
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  7. #46
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
    تاريخ التسجيل
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    Arrow The boot process

    ما هى عملية البوت ؟؟؟


    The boot process
    The last step in the PC start-up is reading the operating system. The start-up program is
    instructed to find the Master boot sector. The boot sector is the very first sector on either hard
    disk (C) or floppy drive A.
    By default, the PC will look for a boot sector in floppy drive A. That is why the PC "drops dead" if
    there is a different diskette in A drive. If there is no diskette in A drive, the start-up program will
    search for the boot sector on hard drive C. When the boot sector is found, a small program
    segment (boot-strap) is read from there. The boot-strap then takes over control of the PC. The
    start-up program has done its job. Now DOS, Windows, or another operating system takes
    control
    .
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  8. #47
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    Arrow What is a chip set ؟ ؟

    What is a chip set?
    اننى أعتبر أن السبسيت هى أهم شىء فى الةحة الأم بعد المعالج ولها تأثر كبير على أداء الكمبيوتر وأدأئه
    When we speak about busses and system boards, we are also speaking
    about chip sets. The
    chip sets are a bunch of intelligent controller chips, which are on any system board. They are
    closely tied to the CPU, in that they control the busses around the CPU. Without the chip sets,
    neither RAM or I/O busses could function together with the CPU
    :
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  9. #48
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    Arrow رد: مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب

    كيف تؤثر الشيب سيت على الأداء وما هى موديلاتها المختلفة لكى أميزها فى الوحة ؟؟

    New technologies - new chip set
    Therefore, the chip sets are quite central components on the system boards. When new
    technological features are introduced (and this happens continuously) they are often
    accompanied by new chip sets. The new chip sets often enable:
    ?Higher speed on one or more busses
    ?Utilization of new facilities (new RAM types, new busses, improved EIDE, etc.)
    There are several suppliers of Pentium chip sets:
    1-Intel
    2-SIS
    3-Opti
    ?Via
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  10. #49
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    رد: مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب

    وقد نسيت فى عرضى السابق شركة
    AMD
    بسبب اشتهارها بصناعة المعالج ولكنها اضطرت لصناعة الشيب سيت لكى تتمكن من تسويق معالجها الذى ينافس معالجات انتل وكان معالج سيركس له حصة من السوق
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

  11. #50
    المشرف العام على منتديات الفرسان الصورة الرمزية attia mohrrim
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    Arrow رد: مشروع الألف سؤال و جواب

    أ
    خبرنى عن الرام وأنواعها ؟؟؟

    RAM is our working memory storage. All the data, which the PC uses and works with during
    operation, are stored here. Data are stored on drives, typically the hard drive. However, for the
    CPU to work with those data, they must be read into the working memory storage, which is
    made up of RAM chips. To examine RAM, we need to look at the following:
    RAM types (FPM, EDO, ECC , SD RAM and DD RAM )
    RAM modules (SIMM and DIMM) in different versions
    RAM and the system bus
    First, let us look back in time. Not too many years ago, Bill Gates said, that with 1 GB RAM, we had a memory capacity, which would never be fully utilized. That turned out to be untrue.
    RAM types
    The traditional RAM type is DRAM (dynamic RAM). The other type is SRAM (static RAM).
    SRAM continues to remember its *******, while DRAM must be *******ed every few milli
    seconds. DRAM consists of micro capacitors, while SRAM consists of off/on switches.
    Therefore, SRAM can respond much faster than DRAM. SRAM can be made with a rise time
    as short as 4 ns. It is used in different versions in L2 cache RAM (for example pipe line Burst
    Cache SRAM).
    DRAM is by far the cheapest to build. Newer and faster DRAM types are developed
    continuously. Currently, there are at least four types:
    FPM (Fast Page Mode)
    ECC (Error Correcting Code)
    EDO (Extended Data Output)
    SDRAM (Synchron Data RAM)
    A brief explanation of DRAM types:
    FPM was the traditional RAM for PC's, before the EDO was introduced. It is mounted in SIMM
    modules of 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 MB. Typically, it is found in 60 ns or 70 ns versions. 60 ns is the
    fastest and the one to use. You cannot mix different speeds on the same Pentium system
    board.
    EDO is an improvement of FPM RAM. Data are read faster. By switching from FPM to EDO,
    one can expect a performance improvement of 2 to 5 percent. EDO RAM are usually sold in 60
    ns versions. A 50 ns version is available at higher cost.
    ECC RAM is a special error correcting RAM type. It is especially used in servers.
    SDRAM is the newest RAM type for PC's. It comes only in 64 bit modules (long 168 pin
    DIMM's). SDRAM has a rise time of only 8-12 ns. The performance improvement over EDO
    RAM is only 5 percent running at 66 MHZ, but at 100 MHZ it will prove a lot better.
    RAMBUS (RDRAM) is a future RAM type. Intel and others have great expectations from this
    type.
    روابط هامة وجميلة


    رُبَّ حامل فقه إلى من هو أفقه منه ---- رُبَّ مبلغ أوعى من سامع (حديث شريف )

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