Turns and Voltage ratios  
TURNS AND VOLTAGE RATIOS The total voltage induced into the secondary winding of a transformer is determined mainly by the RATIO of the number of turns in the primary to the number of turns in the secondary, and by the amount of voltage applied to the primary. Refer to figure (10). Part (A) of the figure shows a transformer whose primary consists of ten turns of wire and whose secondary consists of a single turn of wire. You know that as lines of flux generated by the primary expand and collapse, they cut BOTH the ten turns of the primary and the single turn of the secondary. Since the length of the wire in the secondary is approximately the same as the length of the wire in each turn in the primary, EMF INDUCED INTO THE SECONDARY WILL BE THE SAME AS THE EMF INDUCED INTO EACH TURN IN THE PRIMARY. This means that if the voltage applied to the primary winding is 10 volts, the counter emf in the primary is almost 10 volts. Thus, each turn in the primary will have an induced counter emf of approximately onetenth of the total applied voltage, or one volt. Since the same flux lines cut the turns in both the secondary and the primary, each turn will have an emf of one volt induced into it. The transformer in part (A) of figure 510 has only one turn in the secondary, thus, the emf across the secondary is one volt.
The transformer represented in part (B) of figure (10) has a tenturn primary and a twoturn secondary. Since the flux induces one volt per turn, the total voltage across the secondary is two volts. Notice that the volts per turn are the same for both primary and secondary windings. Since the counter emf in the primary is equal (or almost) to the applied voltage, a proportion may be set up to express the value of the voltage induced in terms of the voltage applied to the primary and the number of turns in each winding. This proportion also shows the relationship between the number of turns in each winding and the voltage across each winding. This proportion is expressed by the equation:
Notice the equation shows that the ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage is equal to the ratio of secondary turns to primary turns. The equation can be written as:
The following formulas are derived from the above equation:
Example. There are 400 turns of wire in
an ironcore coil. If this coil is to be used as the primary of a
transformer, how many turns must be wound on the coil to form the
secondary winding of the transformer to have a secondary voltage of one
volt if the primary voltage is five volts?
Note: The ratio of the voltage (5:1) is equal to the turns ratio (400:80). Sometimes, instead of specific values, you are given a turns or voltage ratio. In this case, you may assume any value for one of the voltages (or turns) and compute the other value from the ratio. For example, if a turn ratio is given as 6:1, you can assume a number of turns for the primary and compute the secondary number of turns (60:10, 36:6, 30:5, etc.).
The transformer in each of the above problems has fewer turns in the secondary than in the primary. As a result, there is less voltage across the secondary than across the primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is less than the voltage across the primary is called a STEPDOWN transformer.
The ratio of a fourtoone stepdown transformer is written as 4:1. A transformer that has fewer turns in the primary than in the secondary will produce a greater voltage across the secondary than the voltage applied to the primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is greater than the voltage applied to the primary is called a STEPUP transformer. The ratio of a onetofour stepup transformer should be written as 1:4. Notice in the two ratios that the value of the primary winding is always stated first.
EFFECT OF ALOAD When a load device is connected across the secondary winding of a transformer, current flows through the secondary and the load. The magnetic field produced by the current in the secondary interacts with the magnetic field produced by the current in the primary. This interaction results from the mutual inductance between the primary and secondary windings.
MUTUAL FLUX The total flux in the core of the transformer is common to both the primary and secondary windings. It is also the means by which energy is transferred from the primary winding to the secondary winding. Since this flux links both windings, it is called MUTUAL FLUX. The inductance which produces this flux is also common to both windings and is called mutual inductance. Figure (11) shows the flux produced by the currents in the primary and secondary windings of a transformer when source current is flowing in the primary winding.
When a load resistance is connected to the secondary winding, the voltage induced into the secondary winding causes current to flow in the secondary winding. This current produces a flux field about the secondary (shown as broken lines) which is in opposition to the flux field about the primary (Lenz's law). Thus, the flux about the secondary cancels some of the flux about the primary. With less flux surrounding the primary, the counter emf is reduced and more current is drawn from the source. The additional current in the primary generates more lines of flux, nearly reestablishing the original number of total flux lines.
TURNS AND CURRENT RATIOS The number of flux lines developed in a core is proportional to the magnetizing force (IN AMPERETURNS) of the primary and secondary windings. The ampereturn (I X N) is a measure of magneto motive force; it is defined as the magnetomotive force developed by one ampere of current flowing in a coil of one turn. The flux which exists in the core of a transformer surrounds both the primary and secondary windings. Since the flux is the same for both windings, the ampereturns in both the primary and secondary windings must be the same. Therefore:
By dividing both sides of the equation by I_{p}N_{ s}, you obtain:
Notice the equations show the current ratio to be the inverse of the turns ratio and the voltage ratio. This means, a transformer having less turns in the secondary than in the primary would step down the voltage, but would step up the current. Example: A transformer has a 6:1 voltage ratio.
Find the current in the secondary if the
current in the primary is 200 milliamperes.
The above example points out that although the voltage across the secondary is onesixth the voltage across the primary, the current in the secondary is six times the current in the primary. The above equations can be looked at from another point of view.
The turns ratio indicates the amount by which the transformer increases or decreases the voltage applied to the primary. For example, if the secondary of a transformer has two times as many turns as the primary, the voltage induced into the secondary will be two times the voltage across the primary. If the secondary has onehalf as many turns as the primary, the voltage across the secondary will be onehalf the voltage across the primary. However, the turns ratio and the current ratio of a transformer have an inverse relationship. Thus, a 1:2 stepup transformer will have onehalf the current in the secondary as in the primary. A 2:1 stepdown transformer will have twice the current in the secondary as in the primary. Example: A transformer with a turns ratio of 1:12 has 3 amperes of current in the secondary. What is the value of current in the primary?


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